October 11, 2016

Professional Writing 笔记


  • 沟通不容易
    • 沟通应该是相互的理解过程 Communication is
    • 萧伯纳(G. B. Shaw):The single biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place.”
  • 我们面对太多信息噪音 We are overwhelmed by NOISE!
    • 彼得·德鲁克(Peter Drucker):The noise level has gone up so fast that…there is clearly less and less communicating.
  • 人们的注意力非常短 People have brief attention spans


  • 必须清楚你的观众群体 You must know what it is like
to be the Audience
    • 我们生活在一个多样化的世界 We live in a world of diversity
    • 你的观众群体忙碌,不喜欢思考,容易分散注意力,代表着多元文化…
    • 必须给他们带来好处 Show the reader a benefit.
  • 必须吸引人的注意力 You must attract attention!
    • 了解人类的大脑 You must penetrate the Reptile Brain.
    • 使用以下要素:新奇的事情,动作,故事,提问,引用 (Novelty, Movement, Story, Questions, Quotes)…
    • 思考:你的故事是什么?What is your story?
      • 故事的组成:Setting 设定 - Conflict 冲突 - Characters 角色 - Plot 密谋 - 高潮 Climax - 结局 Resolution
      • 讲故事使一件事更容易记住 FACTS are 22 TIMES MORE LIKELY TO BE RECALLED when told in the form of a story.
  • 简单书写!Write with SIMPLICITY!
    • 所有人崇尚简单 ALL audiences value SIMPLICITY!
      • 达芬奇:Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication.
      • 爱因斯坦:Everything should be made AS SIMPLE AS POSSIBLE, but not simpler.
    • 使用简单的单词 (1-2 syllables)
    • 写简单的句子 (<15 words)
    • 写精短的段落 (1-5 sentences)

七个写作的诀窍 The Seven Secrets

1. 使用动词 Prefer action verbs
  • 动词是句子中最重要的词 VERB IS MOST IMPORTANT WORDin a sentence.
  • 避免名词,不要把动词变成名词形式 AVOID Nominals.
  • 反之,尽量多地将名词变为动词形式 turn VERBS into nouns and adjectives.
  • 避免Being动词:is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been …
2. 使用主动语态 Prefer active voice
  • 尽量将被动语态转换成主动语态
  • 使用主动语态可以避免模糊不清和歧义
3. 让人和事做主语 Make people and things the subjects of sentences
4. 在段落中使用关键句表达中心思想 Use topic sentences for clarity and coherence
  • 使用如下结构:
    • 介绍 Introduction Paragraph
    • 中心句-支撑论据-结论 Topic sentence-supporting sentences-conclusion
    • 中心句-支撑论据-结论 Topic sentence-supporting sentences-conclusion
    • 中心句-支撑论据-结论 Topic sentence-supporting sentences-conclusion
    • 结尾 Conclusion Paragraph
5. 做好过渡 Use good transitions
  • 使用连接词做过渡 Use transition through conjunctions
6. 使用平行结构 Use parallel structure
  • 举例
    • Good food. Good life.
    • Expect more. Pay less.
    • You can do it. We can help.
7. 让文章易于阅读 Design documents for ease of reading.


  • 尽量避免使用 should, would, could, may, might
  • 尽量避免使用 It is, it was, it has been, it will be…句式
  • 尽量避免使用 There is, there are, there was, there were, there will be, there has been…句式
    • 原因:使用being动词的句子难以找到主语;这些句子更容易使用名词(nominals)
  • 使用主语-动词-宾语结构 S-V-O(subject-verb-object)
  • 使用数字:one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine
  • 使用冠词:a, an, the


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